Gems of Vim: Tips & Tricks
Jan 26, 2015 • I'm writing in Vim about writing in Vim.
“A good programmable editor will grow with you for the rest of your career, multiplying your effectiveness as a developer.” - Avdi Grimm
Before I tried Vim, my code editor of choice was Sublime Text. Sublime is clean, fast, and had features that I really love. I was also new to programming, and I needed something that worked well without a lot of effort. But, I liked the idea of Vim. With Vim, I wouldn’t have to leave command line to use it, and I heard that Vim has extensive customization options and some crazy awesome features. Actually, I mostly liked the idea of Vim because it looked cool.
When I set out to learn Vim, I quickly hit some tough learning barriers, as does any developer new to Vim.
Original Setbacks to Vim
As much as I tried to use Vim for all of my editing, I kept defaulting back to Sublime text. Most of the issues were common newbie problems:
I couldn’t use a mouse, and that made navigating hard.
Remedies: Life After Mice
Move to the top of a file:
Move to the bottom of a file:
Move to a specific line: First type the colon key,
:. Then type the line number* and press enter. To go to line 6, it will look like
With these three commands, I could move around much easier. There is also
k, and even multiple lined versions like
2j, but I prefer the colon command the most.
*To Display line numbers, type
:set number. To get rid of the line numbers, press
Without a mouse, I didn’t know how to highlight sections of text, and this was a big downer for me. Fortunately Vim has an awesome mode called Visual Mode. Visual mode is entered 3 ways:
Character-wise Visual Mode
Character-wise Visual Mode is entered by pressing
v. From there, you navigate with
hjkl to select what you’d like. You can copy your highlighted selection with
y, delete it with
d, or change it (erase it and enter insert mode) with
Line-wise Visual Mode
You enter Line-wise Visual Mode by pressing
V. This highlights lines at a time, and you can select more by going up & down with
jk. Changes are made the same way as with Character-wise Visual Mode.
The Almighty Block-wise Visual Mode
Block-wise Visual Mode was one of the first features of Vim that made me audibly say “WOW”. To enter Block-wise VM(or Column-wise as I think about it), press control & v at the same time,
ctrl+v. Once you enter VM, you can select columns, up & down, left & right. What is really cool is that if you select your columns & press
A, you can add to the end of each line all at once. First you see it making changes on the original line, but once you exit back into normal mode, the changes will take effect on each line.
Sublime’s Simultaneous Search & Edit
I loved Sublime Text’s Search & Edit, and that’s something Vim missed. There’s not a straight equivalent of it in Vim, but here are some commands that make me miss it less.
Search & Replace
Vim’s Search & Replace is a colon command, also called Ex Commands. To replace a specific word throughout your file you will start with
s stands for substitution, and the
% says to search over the entire file. Next, section it with
/ and add the word you want to replace. It will look like
:%s/word. Follow that with
/ and the replacement, making the command now
:%s/word/replacement. Next, you’ll end it with
/g. This stands for global, meaning that it makes changes globally or over the entire file. Without it, it will only replace the next word after your cursor. The full command looks like:
You can learn more about search and replace here.
The Process of Learning Vim
My switch-over to Vim was very gradual, a process of about a month. I went on the search for blogs & tutorials on the best ways to use Vim. Everyday, when I wanted to take a break at work, I’d open up a command line, type in
vim nothingness, and write away in Insert Mode whatever came to my head. It was nonsense, but it helped me get used to the feeling of Vim, and it also made it easier to put my thoughts into writing (added bonus). After I was done, I’d exit without saving,
:q!, and the writing would disappear into nothingness. After 3 weeks, I noticed myself using Vim more for my daily work, and after another 2 weeks, I felt much more comfortable with Vim and any other tool. Now when I jump into Sublime or Textmate, I catch myself using Vim commands.
Along the way, I found some great resources. If you’re new to Vim, check these out. They are very useful in getting down the basics:
- Vim Adventures - An online game based on VIM’s keyboard shortcuts
- Vim-Tutor - This usually ships with Vim and can be accessed in command line with
What finally sold me on Vim was a book called Practical Vim. This book was the turning point for me, and I highly recommend reading it because it will completely change your mindset on how to use Vim. I am only 60 pages into this 300 page book, and I already feel like a Practical Vim whiz.
Features That Sold Me To Vim
Practical Vim starts off with one very powerful command: the Dot Command, or simply
.. Dot allows you to repeat the previous command. Here’s a good example. Say I have the sentence, “When I eat, I eat like a pig.” Obviously that’s not true for me, but it may be true for you, and I can’t have that rumor spreading around.
So, I take the sentence and hover over the first “I” and rewrite it to “you” with the command
cwyou, or Change-Word and then “you”. I escape to normal mode, move over to the next “I”, and all I have to do is press
.. Voila, the change is made and rumors are spread. It’s very powerful. What’s even more powerful is that it helped me understand the point of the different modes. I started to enter and exit Insert Mode more often; I was learning how to make modular changes.
The Different Modes
Normal mode is home base in my eyes. It’s the mode you begin with, and the mode you go back to any time you hit escape. When I am in Normal Mode, I am taking the next steps to enter another mode to make changes. It’s where the
. command lives. It’s also the mode that makes navigating easy.
If you’re navigating in Insert Mode, consider getting used to escaping out of it back into normal mode, and it’ll be much easier.
We discussed Visual Mode earlier, but it’s worth mentioning again because with Vim, it’s good to think in modes. I’m navigating? Normal Mode. I’m making changes to a selection? Visual Mode. I quickly want to move whole lines or move to another line far away? Ex mode, as we’ll see below.
Replace mode can be very useful at times. It’s entered into from Normal Mode in two ways:
rto replace one character and return to normal mode.
Rto stay in Replace Mode until you escape.
Replace mode deletes the highlighted character and replaces it with the character that you type.
Ex commands(colon commands) have the power of making changes anywhere on the file despite the location of your cursor. One I’ve already mentioned is moving to a specific line. Here are some other common ex commands.
You can copy lines to another location easily with
:t, which comes from “copy To”. Say you want to move line 6 to below line 18, the command would be
:6t18. The line to be copied is stated before the ‘t’, and the location to move it is stated after. You can copy several lines to a location at once. Say we want to move lines 6 through 11 to below 18, then you would use the command
:6,11t18 where 6 is the beginning line and 11 is the end line.
Say you want to move the lines to the line right below the cursor. To do so, replace the location number with
. So the command above would instead be
The Move command moves whole lines to a new location and works exactly like the copy command, only replacing
The O command
The O command is nifty and very useful with two variations:
owill create a new line below and put you into insert mode on that line.
Owill create a new line above and put you into insert mode on that line.
Final Thoughts - Keep It Fun
If you’re new to programming, I’d consider holding off learning Vim until you’re comfortable with a language. Starting off with Vim can add significant frustration to what may already be a frustrating time of getting down programming concepts. I started with Textmate, which I loved, and moved on to Sublime Text which I loved even more. I recommend either, and you can decide which one you favor more.
Don’t give in to the pressure of the hardcore Vim or Emacs enthusiasts; it’s all about what works for you. Enjoy the process of learning Vim because it should be fun. If your experience is full of frustration rather than “WOW” moments, give it a break and use what works. You can give it another try later. In fact, the quote from Avdi at the beginning is from a blog called “Let’s stop telling programming newbies to learn Vim (or Emacs)”. He hits on points from another great blog by Yehuda Katz called “Everyone Who Tried to Convince Me to use Vim was Wrong”.
Enjoy the learning experience and happy coding!
Follow Up - New Vim Blog
I’ve learned a lot more about Vim and I have more to share in a new blog: More Gems of Vim - Tabs, Mappings, and More Tips. Check it out!